We recorded specific guidelines as they were encountered in these sources,

then compared the individual guidelines independent of their original sources by means of a card-sorting activity. The purpose of this comparison was two-fold. First, we grouped and re-grouped the guidelines to discover a manageable number of categories in which we might discuss them, since the categorization of guidelines from one author to another varied considerably. During this phase, we eliminated any guidelines that were originally states! as specific advice regarding development of a single product rather than as general advice to developers of interactive multimedia. Second, we consolidated guidelines which were the same or similar into single statements. This sorting activity was conducted once by the authors, then again by an independent collaborator. Finally, we all met to resolve the few discrepancies between sorts. Sorting the guidelines resulted in creation of five categories based on the type of element to be designed: typography, graphical images, color, animation, and audio. An additional category emerged in which the guidelines are more properly called principles, since they do not imply specific actions with regard to design of individual media elements, but give instead a statement of effect for which the designer must strive using whatever specific means are appropriate. We call these guidelines “integrative.”