One way to try to eliminate the alternative explanations is to compare learning when the information, instructional method, interactivity, and pace are the same, and novelty is reduced. For example, this situation occurs when the same verbal information is presented using audio and printed text together (redundant multimedia) versus audio text alone “monomedia”). Any performance differences found in these conditions are probably due to the media.

Some studies (Levie & Lentz, 1982; Mayer & Anderson, 1991, 1992; Nugent, 1982; Pezdek, Lehrer, & Simon, 1984; Sevcrin, 1967) looked at this kind of information presentation. These studies found that two redundant media seem to improve learning better than one medium. For example, Mayer and Anderson (1991) had college students (a) hear a verbal description, simultaneously with an animation explaining how a bicycle pump works (redundant multimedia), (b) hear the verbal description only “monomedia”), (c) see the animation only “monomedia”), or (d) receive no training. On a problem-solving test the students who heard a verbal description simultaneously with the animation (redundant multimedia) performed better than the other students. In another study (Nugent, 1982), the highest learning levels were obtained when elementary school students were presented information via combined text and pictures (redundant multimedia) or combined audio and pictures (redundant multimedia) compared to

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