the same content presented via text alone (“monomedia”), audio alone (“monomedia”), or pictures alone (“monomedia”).
However, redundant multimedia does not always lead to improved learning. For example, Severin (1967) found that children who learned animal names using two media (audio combined with print) did not show better animal name recognition than children who learned with one medium (print alone).
These inconsistent results may be due to the way in which the media are used. The next section identifies specific circumstances in which multimedia appears to improve learning. It seems that some situations more effectively improve multimedia learning than other situations.